Second DONES Users Workshop

Parque de las Ciencias, Granada

Parque de las Ciencias, Granada

Wojciech Królas (IFJ PAN)

The DONES Programme, along with the construction phase of the IFMIF-DONES facility has been officially started in March 2023. To follow-up and consolidate the discussions about the scientific opportunities at DONES presented at the First IFMIF-DONES Users Workshop, we are calling for this Second IFMIF-DONES Users Workshop.

The workshop will be held as an in-person event in Parque de las Ciencias, in Granada, Spain.

The key objective of this Second DONES User´s Workshop is to contribute and consolidate the international DONES Users Community representing all the different scientific and technological areas that could be interested in this facility.

Initially, one of the main roles for the DONES Users Community will be to establish a stable link of communication between the DONES engineering activities and the future users in such a way, that requirements coming from the potential users can be evaluated in terms of technical feasibity, ease of implementation and available budget and factored in during the construction phase of the facility.

Taking this into account, this workshop will focus on two specific objectives:
-    To establish a permanent DONES Users Committee that will formally interact with the recently established DONES Programme Team, and
-    To initiate the process to develop a first preliminary version of a DONES Irradiation Programme based on the review of the needs of the DONES Users Community.

Proposed areas of scientific interest / sessions of the workshop:

  1. Material qualification for DEMO and the fusion program – convened by G. Pintsuk  and M. Rieth 
  2. Tritium technologies validation at DONES – convener D. Rapisarda
  3. Irradiation program proposal - discussion convened by A. Ibarra
  4. Complementary experiments – collimated neutron beam facility – convener A. Letourneau
  5. Medical and industrial application of neutrons – convener  J. Praena
  6. Neutron time-of-flight facility at DONES and other experimental ideas – convener D. Cano-Ott
  7. Development of DONES users community – convener M. Lewitowicz

We kindly invite you to send abstracts and contribute to the discussion. The program of the sessions will be composed of a small number of key-note talks to introduce the proposed topics along with a number of contributed presentations selected based on submitted abstracts. 

Deadline for submission of abstracts is July 15 2023. 

There will be a participation fee of 100 Euro to cover the cost of the organisation, coffee breaks and lunches. Participation of young researchers is encouraged. 

Remote, by-video participation free of charge will also be possible. Please register to the workshop to receive updates of the agenda, video conference links, etc.

The workshop will take place two days before the 21st International Conference of Fusion Reactor Materials ICFRM-21 which will be held in Granada on October 22-27.

A summary of the discussions of the meeting will be compiled and published as a report.

We are looking forward to your contributions and participation.

Best regards,

Angel Ibarra, Wojciech Królas

  • Thursday, October 19
    • Welcome and introductory session
      • 1
        Welcome from IFMIF-DONES Consortium
        Speaker: Angel Ibarra (IFMIF-DONES España)
      • 3
        Present status of the DONES Programme
        Speaker: Philippe Cara (F4E)
      • 4
        Facilities for irradiation and complementary experiments at DONES

        Authors: S. Becerril, J. Castellanos, F. Arbeiter, D. Bernardi, A. Ibarra, I. Podadera, W. Krolas, System Responsible Officers of Test Systems

        As general experimental and irradiation capabilities three planned spaces or experimental areas are currently planned in the facility: The Test Cell, the Complementary Experiments area, room 160, located just behind the Test Cell and connected with it by a neutron line, and the room 026, located below the accelerator areas.

        Firstly, the Test Cell is a special room considered as the core of the facility. Within it, fusion-like neutrons will be produced at the highest fluxes up to 1-5x1014 n/cm2/s in the high-flux region. Downstream to this region, still inside the TC, space will be available for irradiation at lower neutron fluxes in the mid- and low-flux regions. Therefore, the TC will allow irradiation of several modules at the same time to ensure maximum utilisation of the neutron flux.

        Secondly, the Complementary Experiments area, room 160, just behind the Test Cell, will be provided with significant neutron fluxes available for a wide range of experiments in many different areas such as e.g. material and biological sciences, neutron radiography and tomography or nuclear medicine for radioisotope productions. Amongst the requirements applicable to this room, an important one consists of avoiding any interference with the main experiments conducted in the Test Cell as well as enhancing in-person accessibility while the TC is in operation.

        Last but not least, an experimental hall, room 026, below the accelerator vault will receive a small fraction of the deuteron beam to potentially conduct experiments in broad areas inside technological and scientific knowledge. This size of this hall is large enough to envision implementation of a secondary neutron target connected to a neutron Time-of-Flight experiment.

        Therefore, IFMIF-DONES is being designed as a highly flexible facility where a wide range of fusion and non-fusion experiments can be implemented by the users. Further detailes and a complete description of those capabilities offered by IFMIF-DONES to the community is given through the present work.

        Speaker: Santiago Becerril Jarque (IFMIF-DONES España)
      • 5
        Preliminary safety assessment of DONES
        Speaker: Claudio Torregrosa Martin (Universidad de Granada)
    • Material qualification for DEMO and the fusion program
      • 6
        Overview on structural material qualification needs
        Speaker: Michael Rieth (KIT)
      • 7
        Needs of ferritic-martensitic steels qualification in Japan

        Of many structural materials for fusion reactors, the basic strategy of neutron irradiation data acquisition for reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel F82H for application to DEMO reactors is presented, and a staged irradiation test plan utilizing the fusion neutron irradiation facility is described. In addition, the recent status of developmental techniques to evaluate the onset of the fusion neutron irradiation effect will also be reported.

        Speaker: Dr Takashi Nozawa (National Institutes for Quantum Science and Technology)
    • Coffee break
    • Material qualification for DEMO and the fusion program
      • 8
        Overview on high heat flux and functional qualification needs
        Speaker: Gerald Pintsuk (FZ Juelich)
      • 9
        IFMIF-DONES High Flux Test Module: design overview and strategy
        Speaker: Frederik Arbeiter (KIT)
      • 10
        Detailed irradiation parameters assessment of the IFMIF-DONES HFTM irradiation capsules

        IFMIF-DONES, the International Fusion Irradiation Facility-DEMO Oriented NEutron Source, is a major international project aimed at testing and studying materials under extreme neutron irradiation conditions expected in future fusion reactors. It seeks to create an environment that accurately simulates the irradiation conditions of fusion reactors, enabling researchers to evaluate material performance and suitability for fusion nuclear applications.

        The variation ranges of the irradiation parameters of the different kinds of Small Scale Testing Technique (SSTT) material specimens inside each irradiation capsule are shown in this work, taking into account the irradiation conditions in the current High Flux Test Module (HFTM). Neutron fluence rate, primary displacement damage, nuclear heating and transmutation gases to displacement damage ratio are evaluated in order to provide valuable insights into the anticipated radiation environment within each HFTM irradiation capsule.

        A comprehensive understanding of these variation ranges of the irradiation parameters within IFMIF-DONES is crucial to design and conduct experiments. This knowledge ensures experiment accuracy, reliability, and optimization. By thoroughly studying the irradiation conditions, including neutron flux, energy spectrum, and radiation effects, researchers can tailor experiments to specific requirements, gaining valuable insights into scientific phenomena. Precise control and manipulation of experimental parameters facilitate meaningful results and pave the way for breakthrough discoveries.

        Speaker: Irene Álvarez Castro (University of Granada)
      • 11
        Roadmap on the development and qualification of Small Scale Test Technologies
        Speaker: Marta Serrano (CIEMAT)
      • 12
        Post irradiation facilities and exploitation of results
        Speaker: H.C. Schneider and D. Terentyev, presented by G. Pintsuk
    • Lunch
    • Material qualification for DEMO and the fusion program
      • 13
        Role of fusion neutron source facilities in modeling and simulation studies of irradiation effects of fusion reactor materials

        In order to predict irradiation effects of materials in fusion DEMO reactors with high accuracy, developing a mechanistic model is necessary based on theoretical understating the dependence of material behaviors on irradiation parameters such as irradiation temperature, dose rate and helium production rate. In this presentation, the current status of modeling and simulation research activities on irradiation effects will be reported with focusing on void swelling phenomenon in RAFM steel of a blanket structural material. In addition, role of fusion neutron source facilities in modeling and simulation studies of the material irradiation effects will be presented.

        Speaker: Dr Yoshiyuki WATANABE (National Institutes for Quantum Science and Technolog)
      • 14
        Neutron Irradiation Plan in A-FNS for DEMO and Industrial Application

        A. Kasugai, S. Sato, K. Ochiai, M. Oyaidzu, S. Kwon, S. Kenjo, S. Honda and K. Hasegawa

        National Institutes for Quantum Science and Technology (QST)

        Irradiation experimental plans are being considered for testing with fusion neutron sources in QST. The multi-purpose usage of neutrons is also being considered. As a high neutron flux irradiation, the irradiation test of F82H, a reduced activation ferritic steel, is planned, and that of tungsten, a divertor material, is also being considered. In addition, irradiation plans for Li2TiO3, a Japanese WCCB breeder candidate material, and beryllium and beryllium alloy, multiplier materials, are being carried out in the middle neutron intensity region, and a tritium recovery verification test using a WCCB mockup is being planned. Radiation durability tests of materials related to diagnostic and control devices are also considered. As multi-purpose usage of neutrons, the production of Mo-99 for medical radioisotope is mainly being considered. The design of a neutron beam facility that can be used for neutron imaging and other applications is also discussed.
        In this presentation, a comprehensive plan for the utilization of the fusion neutron source A-FNS will be introduced.

        Speaker: Atsushi Kasugai (National Institutes for Quantum Science and Technology (QST))
      • 15
    • Tritium technologies validation at DONES
      • 16
        Qualification of blanket mock-ups irradiation modules

        In this work, a comprehensive overview of a series of critical experiments and tests vital for the advancement of fusion reactor technologies and their qualification is given. Indeed, the qualification of these technologies is an unquestionable prerequisite for the development of fusion power plant and is essential for the licensing of fusion nuclear systems.

        The resolution of the challenges connected to the qualification of the Breeding Blanket technologies requires extensive tests in both non-fusion and fusion facilities. While non-fusion facilities enable the study of some single and separate effects, these data are limited and sometimes not fully representative of the operating conditions of the breeding blanket. Irradiation in fission reactors and IFMIF-DONES are important steps in the material characterisation as well as in the qualification process, focusing however on lifetime neutron radiation effects in a limited volume and time frame.

        As a matter of fact, there is a need for testing relevant blanket technologies in an actual DT-plasma based device to fulfil the remaining gaps. These should include the results of the Test Blanket Module programme in ITER – which continue to be crucial confirmation tests despite being conducted at very low fluence, and more extensive and integrated tests in a Volumetric Neutron Source.
        Collectively, these comprehensive tests and qualification efforts will be instrumental in advancing the application of fusion technology, paving the way for safer and more efficient fusion reactor designs.

        Speaker: Gandolfo Alessandro Spagnuolo (EUROfusion)
      • 17
        Liquid metals Breeding Blankets: overview and key pending validation needs
        Speaker: Alessandro Venturini (ENEA)
      • 18
        Solid Breeding Blankets: overview and key pending validation needs
        Speaker: Guangming Zhou (KIT)
    • Coffee break
    • Tritium technologies validation at DONES
      • 19
        Tritium production and transport modelling
        Speaker: Carlos Moreno (Heffen)
      • 20
        Tritium Release Test Module - design overview
        Speaker: Frederik Arbeiter (KIT)
      • 21
        Liquid Breeder Validation Module - design overview
        Speaker: Belit Garcinuño (CIEMAT)
    • Irradiation program proposal
      • 22
        An introduction to the session on the methodology, how to prepare the Irradiation program proposal
        Speaker: Angel Ibarra (IFMIF-DONES España)
      • 23
        Open discussion
  • Friday, October 20
    • Complementary experiments – collimated neutron beam facility
      • 24
        Introduction to the session
        Speaker: Alain Letourneau (CEA)
      • 25
        Concrete optimization and qualification for IFMIF/DONES and fusion program

        The are several documents regarding the issue of concrete composition in fusion program. In general, the material specifications for IFMIF/DONES need to be compliant with the materials and compositions considered for DEMO in the PPPT programme. A reference document is Material compositions for PPPT neutronics and activation analyses that guides to Recommended chemical composition of ordinary concrete heavy concrete and heavy borated concrete for nuclear analysis by Barabash. There one can find recommended data for density and chemical composition of ordinary concrete, heavy concrete and heavy borated concrete. The IFMIF-DONES shielding mock-up benchmark experiment aims to optimize, produce samples from local components and characterize the shielding performance of ordinary concrete (OC) and heavy concrete (HC). There has been used the recent development in concrete technology for this purpose. As a result Two types of concrete have been designed and provision samples have been produced. Both are of relatively high compressive strength (fc7 more than 60 MPa and fc28 about 80 MPa) and their density meets or exceeds the target density, what is conservative regarding the radiation shielding efficiency.

        Speaker: Tomasz Piotrowski (Warsaw University of Technology, Faculty of Civil Engineering)
      • 26
        Impact of installation of the Tritium Release Test Module in the IFMIF-DONES Test Cell on the neutron spectra inside the Complementary Experiments Room collimated by Neutron Beam Tube and Shutter

        Neutronics analyses performed in this work continue the task of neutron spectra assessments [1] inside the Complementary Experiments Room (CER) collimated by the Neutron Beam Tube and Shutter (NBT&S) system. The NBT&S system is developed to supply neutrons from the D-Li target of the IFMIF-DONES Test Cell (TC) to the CER (Room R160) for conducting experiments with neutron spectra variated from fast to thermal. The variants of employing one or two D+ ions IFMIF-DONES accelerators of continuous beams with the 125 mA or 250 mA currents correspondingly have been studied. The diameter of the NBT&S collimated continuous neutron beam is 15 cm, the length of collimation inside the Removable Biological Shielding Block (RBSB) and the Bucket is 6.6 m. At the exit of NBT&S to CER, the total neutron flux equals 2.15e+10 n/cm2/s, and 88% of that value (1.90e+10 n/cm2/s) is attributed to a fast flux with energy above 0.5 MeV. To make it thermal, moderator blocks made of Polyethylene (PE) are set along the beam line inside the CER. According [1], open NBT&S results in Red (forbidden) radiation zone with the Dose Rate (DR) above 1e5 microSv/h inside CER, by closing the shutter, the DR drops below 1e3 microSv/h, making CER the Yellow (limited regulated) radiation zone.

        For more effective use of neutrons and to test tritium breeding materials at the DEMO blanket conditions in IFMIF-DONES, it is proposed in this work to place the irradiated breeding materials close to the D-Li neutron source, where the materials get the highest neutron loads and, therefore, the space is most valuable for materials irradiation. Such space has been found behind the High Flux Test Module (HFTM), in the region of the Medium Flux Test Module (MFTM) of IFMIF. It is proposed to adapt the detailed engineering design of the Tritium Release Test Module (TRTM) developed at the EVEDA phase to the needs of the IFMIF-DONES. The TRTM design [2] has been used in the creation of the MCNP 3D neutronics model [3]. The TRTM neutronics model has been optimized for the irradiation conditions close to the European HCPB DEMO tritium breeding blanket [3], concerning the nuclear responses such as displacements per atom (dpa), tritium, and helium production. Therefore, the adaptation of the TRTM design [3] to DONES has been used in this work to demonstrate the extended functions for materials irradiation. As the integration of TRTM inside the IFMIF-DONES Test Cell, especially the TRTM’s 30-cm thick graphite reflector and tungsten moderator reduce the level of neutron flux at the entrance to the NBT&S system, the impact of TRTM on neutron spectra in TC and CER R160 has been analyzed. The analyses are performed for both scenarios of the IFMIF-DONES operation, with one and two accelerators generating deuteron currents of 125 mA and 250 mA.

        [1] A. Serikov et al., “Neutrons supply to the IFMIF-DONES Complementary Experiments Room through the neutron tube and neutron beam shutter”, First IFMIF-DONES Users Workshop, September 26-27, 2022,
        [2] A. Abou-Sena, F. Arbeiter, ‘‘Development of the IFMIF Tritium Release Test Module in the EVEDA Phase,’’ Fusion Engineering and Design, 88 (2013), 818-823;
        [3] K. Kondo et al., “Neutronic Analysis of the IFMIF Tritium Release Test Module Based on the EVEDA Design”, Fusion Science and Technology, 66:1 (2014), 228-234,

        Speaker: Arkady Serikov (Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT))
      • 27
        Current status of design of the neutron beamline and shutter
        Speaker: Santiago Becerril Jarque (IFMIF-DONES España)
      • 28
        Sample preparation and investigation of the neutron spectrum at the DONES facility

        The intense flux of high energy neutrons, that will be generated at the upcoming DONES facility offers a unique possibility for material production, cross section measurements and investigation of exotic nuclear properties.
        Radioactive material for samples that are interesting for nuclear astrophysics, but difficult to produce in the right amount and purity, could be made here. This enables measurements of never before measured cross sections.
        For example the $^{85}$Kr(n,$\gamma$) reaction is a branching point for the s-process and has never been directly experimentally determined in the astrophysical important keV-regime. The isotopically pure production could be done at DONES via $^{85}$Rb(n,p) or $^{88}$Sr(n, $\alpha$). Another interesting reaction would be $^{185}$W(n,$\gamma$). One possible way of production could be $^{185}$Re(p,n).

        In addition to the sample production via (n,p) and (n,$\alpha$) also the production via (n,2n) is interesting. DONES is almost uniquely suited for measurement of (n,2n) cross sections via the activation method. Furthermore (n,2n) cross sections allow the production of rare proton-rich isotopes, important for the p-process. Experimental data for this process is especially rare.

        If the neutron spectrum can be successfully shaped, astrophysical relevant cross sections could be measured directly on site. The high neutron flux allows the observation of double neutron captures on isotopes like $^{30}$Si and $^{58}$Fe, enabling the determination of the capture cross sections of $^{31}$Si(2.5$~$h) or $^{59}$Fe(44$~$d).

        Speaker: Sophia Florence Dellmann (Goethe University Frankfurt)
      • 29
        Prospects for neutron imaging at DONES

        Neutron imaging is a non-intrusive inspection tool of interest in many applications. The most employed technique involves thermal neutrons, in most cases from a nuclear reactor, that offer an excellent contrast for light elements, mainly hydrogen, thus complementing gamma- and X-rays. However, all these have serious limitations when dealing with large samples. In these cases, only fast (MeV) neutrons can provide images with reasonable contrast, which is related to the generally low neutron interaction cross sections of fast neutrons. This makes fast neutron imaging a promising inspection modality for many practical problems.

        At DONES, both thermal and fast neutrons can be delivered to the R160 experimental room making it suitable for neutron imaging. In the case of thermal neutrons, the expected flux of about 1e4 n/cm2/s on the sample for a L/D=200 is a few order of magnitude lower than that available at nuclear reactors; hence, while possible and interesting as complement for conventional radiography, it will not be very competitive. On the contrary, the outstanding fast neutron flux of 1e10 n/cm2/s is 3 orders of magnitude higher than that of state-of-the-art facilities such as the NECTAR facility at the FRM-II reactor, which would make DONES a world leading facility in the development and use of fast neutron radiography, allowing for even high resolution fast neutron tomography. Furthermore, the availability of the TOF-DONES neutron time-of-flight facility in R026 opens the door to Fast Neutron Resonance Radiography (FNRR), an innovative technique which adds elemental characterization to the outcome of the conventional fast neutron imaging.

        This contribution will discuss the basics of neutron imaging and, as an example, the current achievements at the CNA HISPANOS facility on neutron radiography and tomography will be presented. Then, the prospects for the implementation of the different modalities of neutron imaging at DONES will be discussed.

        Speaker: Carlos Guerrero (Universidad de Sevilla / Centro Nacional de Aceleradores (CNA))
    • Coffee break
    • Neutron time-of-flight facility at DONES and other experimental ideas
      • 30
        Extraction of the parasitic deutron beam at 40 MeV
        Speaker: Dr Ivan Podadera (IFMIF-DONES España)
      • 31
        Science with neutrons flying at IFMIF-DONES
        Speaker: Emilio Mendoza Cembranos (CIEMAT)
      • 32
        Possible experiments at DONES with pulsed deuteron beams
        Speaker: Adam Maj (IFJ PAN)
      • 33
        Nuclear Astrophysics prospects at DONES

        Neutron-induced reactions play a fundamental role in astrophysics, in particular for the understanding of the origin of the heavy elements in the Universe, which is one of the main open questions in science and a fascinating topic of research.

        Thus far, most of the existing neutron-capture cross section measurements have been made on stable isotopes, with only a handful of experiments available on radioactive samples in the relevant energy range for astrophysics (1 keV to 100 keV). However, there is an increasing need for neutron-capture data on radioactive species. This is especially true for the understanding of explosive nucleosynthesis environments, such as the rapid-neutron capture (r-) process in neutron-star mergers, and also for relatively new nucleosynthesis processes, such as the intermediate (i-) process of nucleosynthesis and the recently proposed n-process operating in core-collapse supernovae explosions.

        With the advent of new facilities and very large neutron fluxes, measurements on radioactive nuclei become increasingly accessible, albeit requiring a significant effort in the development and customization of dedicated instrumentation. In this presentation I will summarize some recent ideas and innovative measuring techniques that could be exploited at the future DONES facility, thereby maximizing the scientific impact of the installation and enabling the opportunity to perform forefront nuclear-physics research, without compromising the primary aim of the installation.

        Speaker: César Domingo Pardo (IFIC U. València)
      • 34
        Deuteron beams in NPI-CAS and GANIL/SPIRAL2

        Cyclotron U120M in NPI CAS produce deuteron beams in the 10-24 MeV range and are they used in activation cross-section measurements and in FNG (Fast Neutron Generators). The experiences with activation measurements helped to contribute to SPIRAL2/NFS with the Pneumatic Transfer System (developed in KIT) and the Irradiation Chamber that allows to study short-lived isotopes produced in the available beams. An overview of the above tools and experimental experiences will be presented.

        Speaker: jaromir mrazek (Nuclear Physics Institute of the CAS)
    • Medical and industrial application of neutrons
      • 35
        Introduction to the session
        Speaker: Javier Praena (University of Granada)
      • 36
        Neutron-dominated mixed-field irradiation fields at CERN: present, future and applications

        Neutron-dominated mixed field irradiation testing stations at CERN are employed for scientific, technological, and industrial application. Currently operating infrastructure include the NEAR irradiation station at the n_TOF facility and a similar infrastructure at ISOLDE, called ISIS (ISOLDE Irradiation Station). NEAR is operating to the neutron time-of-flight (TOF) facility n_TOF [1] served by a Pb spallation target and producing a high-intensity pulsed white-spectrum neutron field covering almost 11 orders of magnitude, from thermal neutrons to several GeV. Close to the neutron source target, a “i-NEAR station” is located, focusing on MGy/y material. In parallel, thanks to an opening in the target area shielding a “a-NEAR station” [2] is operated, focusing on activation for physics measurements. A similar facility, ISIS, is operating parasitically downstream the ISOLDE targets, in a mixed proton/neutron field. In a longer term, a potential high-intensity facility in the CERN’s North Area, if coupled with a high-Z production target [3], will provide a unique source of mixed field radiation (up to 400 MGy/y), coupled with access to high intensity proton beam could be equipped with (semi) parasitic facilities. The goal of this talk will be to give a brief overview of existing and future testing station opportunities at CERN.

        [1] Guerrero, C.; Tsinganis, A.; Berthoumieux, E.; Barbagallo, M.; Belloni, F.; Gunsing, F.; Weiß, C.; 434 Chiaveri, E.; Calviani, M.; Vlachoudis, V.; et al. Performance of the neutron time-of-flight facility 435 n_TOF at CERN. European Physical Journal A 2013, 49, 27. doi:10.1140/epja/i2013-13027-6.
        [2] Matteo Ferrari & All: Design development and implementation of an irradiation station at the neutron time-of-flight facility at CERN
        [3] M. Calviani, B. Goddard, R. Jacobsson and M. Lamont, Vol. 2 (2020): SPS Beam Dump Facility: Comprehensive Design Study 2020, doi:10.23731/CYRM-2020-002

        Speaker: Ana-Paula Bernardes (CERN)
    • Lunch
    • Medical and industrial application of neutrons
      • 37
        Study of Reliability of general modern electronics in a tokamak neutron environment and link to similar challenges in accelerator applications

        The radiation environment (e.g. gamma, neutrons) can damage or destroy electronic devices or sensors, corrupt signals in analogue or digital circuits, corrupt data or programs in digital circuits (memories, microprocessors, microcontrollers, FPGAs, etc. ). These effects can appear gradually due to cumulative phenomena, or instantaneously due to a single particle (e.g. a neutron) causing a phenomenon called “Single Event Effect” (SEE).

        In a modern tokamak (e.g. ITER) or in a modern particle accelerator (e.g. the LHC), the most difficult radiation problem to solve is that of SEEs induced by thermal and intermediate neutrons (up to 14 MeV in a deuterium-tritium fusion installation, and up to 20 MeV in a particle accelerator). To perform the regulatory safety demonstration of safety electronics, or the reliability demonstration of critical electronics (essential for investment protection and operability of the machine), it is necessary to know the reliability of the constituting electronic semiconductor devices. This reliability established by their manufacturers is only valid in the environment in which it was established, which is the natural terrestrial environment at ground level. In a non-natural neutron environment, it must be determined by neutron irradiation tests. This approach is generally not feasible due to the large amount and diversity of electronics involved. The possibilities of relocation to radiation-free regions are limited due to constraints on cable lengths. The possibilities of redundancy (to increase reliability and ensure a safe state) are limited due to size and cost constraints, and generally do not make it possible to dispense with the need for neutron irradiation tests. In a tokamak or in an accelerator, for the vast majority of electronics, the only realistically feasible solution is to install the electronics in Radiation Protected Areas (RPAs), whose neutron environment must be demonstrated to be equivalent, in terms of impact on the reliability of general modern electronics, to the natural atmospheric terrestrial environment at ground level.

        This demonstration of equivalence requires a detailed study of the sensitivity of electronics to thermal and intermediate neutrons, covering a panel of electronic components and SEE mechanisms representative of general modern electronics. This panel must include the families of components most sensitive to neutrons and must include for each family different technological nodes representative of contemporary and advanced electronics.

        CERN, in collaboration with the IM2NP Institute of the University of Aix-Marseille and the IRFM Institute, operator of the WEST tokamak at the CEA in Cadarache, is currently preparing, within a broad collaborative framework, a detailed study of the sensitivity to SEEs of the general modern electronics, the results of which will provide the input data necessary for the optimization of Radiation-Protected Areas in facilities such as tokamaks and particle accelerators. This approach will make it possible to replace the case-by-case qualification of the electronics of a facility for its specific neutron environment, which is not feasible on a large scale, by the optimization and the qualification of the neutron environment for any modern electronic circuit.

        This invited talk will present the motivations for this detailed study, the preliminary study which made it possible to validate the method and the models which will be used for the detailed study, and the guidelines for the detailed study.

        Speaker: Dr Martin DENTAN (CEA-IRFM (Home Institute), and CERN (Project Associate))
      • 38
        Radiation effects and test facilities for accelerator electronics at CERN

        A large variety of electronic components and systems is installed in the tunnel and in shielded alcoves along the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator at CERN, which is needed to operate the machine. However, when the LHC is operating, the interaction of the proton beams with elements of the machine, such as the collimators and the collision debris from the experiments, produce electromagnetic and hadronic showers. These sources of radiation affect electronics by inducing Single Event Effects (SEEs) and cumulative damage, such as the Total Ionising Dose (TID).

        The talk shows how the radiation levels are measured and simulated for critical areas, focusing on thermal and higher energy neutrons, which are inducing most SEEs. In addition, the impact of neutrons between 0.1 and 10 MeV is presented, showing they can induce more SEEs than higher energetic neutrons, especially with technology scaling. An example of a secondary application from studies performed at CERN is shown regarding neutron measurements in a medical LINAC.

        Moreover, an overview of the neutron test facilities employed by CERN to test electronics components and systems is presented, as well as the RADNEXT and HEARTS projects, which aim at enhancing accessibility and autonomy to radiation test facilities for industry and research activities.

        Speaker: Matteo Cecchetto (CERN)
      • 39
        Design of biological response studies to fast neutrons at the DONES facility

        Particle beam radiation, and therefore neutrons, are classified as ionising radiation due to their biological effect. They can affect biological tissue in two main ways: by inducing cell death and by inducing genetic alterations that can lead to stochastic or deterministic effects in cells. Neutrons have been classified as high LET (Linear Energy Transfer) particles and, due to the large number of ionizations they produce, have the capacity to induce non-repairable lesions in DNA, compared to low LET radiation such as photons (conventional radiotherapy). The study of the biological damage produced by neutrons has so far been a complex issue given the difficulty of accessing neutron sources where they can be carried out. The DONES facility will provide a high flux of neutrons with a broad energy spectrum that will allow for the first time to study the effects of high dose rate radiation in biological organisms, to obtain data on the biological risk in space missions and to carry out studies of the energy dependence of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) factors, of interest for proton and neutron therapies and radiological protection. In order to design a radiobiology laboratory to perform these types of studies at the DONES facility, we have begun to set up and carry out cell line irradiation experiments with the the CIEMAT ²⁵²Cf source. Specifically, the A375 melanoma cell line has been irradiated and cell survival has been analyzed using viability and clonogenicity assays. The results will be compared with those previously obtained by the research group at other sources with neutrons of different energies, such as those of the Laue-Langevin Institute (ILL) in Grenoble and the National Accelerator Centre (CNA) in Seville.

        Speaker: M. Carmen Ruiz Ruiz (Universidad de Granada)
      • 40
        Opportunities for radiobiology at DONES

        Most cancer patients worldwide who undergo radiotherapy are treated with megavoltage X-rays, though other forms of radiation (such as protons or heavy ions) are being incorporated to clinics. In all these treatment types, the absorbed dose is the fundamental magnitude to determine the effects of ionising radiation on both normal or tumor living tissues. However, a single relationship between absorbed dose and biological effects is not available because the latter depend also on factors such as the treatment fractionation, the absorbed dose rate, the radiation quality, the tumor characteristics, the environment in which it evolves, and the endpoint considered (cell survival, chromosomal aberrations, molecular damage to DNA, etc.) In general, weighting factors, such as the relative biological effectiveness (RBE), are used together with the absorbed doses to define dosimetric quantities directly related to the biological effects [1].

        High-energy beams produce neutrons that may increase the dose absorbed to tissues outside the target volume and compromise critical organs with acute toxicity and late complications in treated patients. Due to the high RBE of neutrons, small neutron doses can be relevant for cancer induction. However, the uncertainties are currently too large. Besides neutron RBE is energy dependent [2] and there is a need to improve our understanding of this relationship, which also affects the radiation protection standards [3,4] and is strongly related to the data adopted for the assessment [5].

        The IFMIF-DONES project is an excellent opportunity to expand our knowledge about neutron RBE. It also could provide the possibility to study cell response to both neutrons and deuterons at the energies that will be available.

        In conclusion, the study of the response of cell cultures to irradiation provides valuable information that can be transferred to clinical practice. The neutron and deuteron beams that would be available at the IFMIF-DONES facility will open the possibility of analyzing situations in this respect that have never been investigated before. Cell culture irradiation and measurement of different endpoints could be carried out. The study with the new beams provided by IFMIF-DONES would complete the radiobiological information obtained by using the electron clinical accelerators of the nearby hospitals, as well as the X-ray irradiation facilities available at CAN or CIC-UGR.

        [1] IAEA, TRS-461. Relative biological effectiveness in ion beam therapy. International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna : 2008.
        [2] G Baiocco, S Barbieri, G Babini, et al. The origin of neutron biological effectiveness as a function of energy. Sci Rep 2016;6:34033.
        [3] ICRP. 1990 Recommendations of the International Commission on Radiological Protection. ICRP Publication 60. Ann ICRP 1991;21 (1-3).
        [4] ICRP. Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE), Quality Factor (Q), and Radiation Weighting Factor (wR). ICRP Publication 92. Ann ICRP 2003;33 (4).
        [5] NRC Regulations Title 10, Code of Federal Regulations: 10 CFR. 20.1004 (2014).

        Speaker: Antonio Miguel Lallena Rojo (Universidad de Granada)
      • 41
        Assessment of radioisotopes production in IFMIF-DONES Test Cell

        The International Fusion Irradiation Facility-DEMO Oriented NEutron Source (IFMIF-DONES) will be an experimental facility that will provide a characteristic spectrum of high energy and intensity neutrons. Its primary functionality will be to test materials under equivalent nuclear fusion irradiation conditions to qualify them for the future nuclear fusion power plant DEMO. The material specimens will be held inside the High Flux Test Module (HFTM) just behind where the neutron source is produced.
        The IFMIF-DONES project is in the final design phase, and the optimization of other secondary uses compatible with the main one that provide added value is being studied. One of them is to reuse the attenuated flux of neutrons coming out of the HFTM for producing Molybdenum-99 (99Mo), a radioactive element that disintegrates generating Technecium-99m (99Tc). This paper study the possibility to install a device to produce radioisotopes just behind the HFTM. 99Tc is the most used radiopharmaceutical for imaging diagnostic of many types of cancer. Currently, its production is engaged and the search for new ways to obtain is urgent. Besides, for the IFMIF-DONES neutron spectrum it is possible to obtain 99Mo through two nuclear reaction ways 98Mo(n, γ)99Mo and 100Mo(n, 2n)99Mo. The last reaction is not possible to reach in nuclear fission plants.
        The study has been carried out for different types of molybdenum samples (natural and enriched with 98Mo and 100Mo) and in different positions has been simulated. Nuclear transport and nuclear inventory calculation codes have been used to obtain the specific activity.

        Speaker: Fernando Mota (Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión, CIEMAT)
      • 42
        Challenges and opportunities in Nuclear Medicine and Radiopharmacy at DONES.

        Nuclear medicine and radiopharmacy are two disciplines that are making great strides in the development of new radiotracers. Theragnosis with radiopharmaceuticals represents a breakthrough in increasingly targeted cancer therapies. This concept involves diagnosis and treatment with two radionuclides of the same element or related molecules with different isotopes ensuring that what you image is what you treat.
        Radioimmunotherapy is moving towards personalised medicine, with increasingly specific molecules for molecular imaging and treatment with alpha and beta-emitting radiopharmaceuticals.
        Alpha emitters, such as Actinium-225 radiopharmaceuticals are being developed to improve therapeutic nuclear medicine. The production of this radioisotope presents a particular challenge for Targeted Alpha Therapy (TAT), a therapeutic strategy in oncology that combines alpha-emitting radionuclides with various targeting molecules to selectively treat different tumours.

        Beta emitters have been very successful, such as Lutetium-177 radiopharmaceuticals, which have experienced an exponential boom in the last decade.
        Lu-177 therapy was a breakthrough in the treatment of neuroendocrine tumours. [177Lu]177Lu-DOTA-TATE (with its homologous PET imaging molecule [68Ga]68Ga-DOTATOC) is already widely used in hospitals. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men. A new radiopharmaceutical for the treatment of castration-resistant prostate cancer has recently been approved in Europe. It is [177Lu]177Lu-PSMA. Promising new clinical trials are opening up new treatment options for ovarian tumours using Lutetium-177 radioligands, and for other poor-prognosis cancers, which have an important tool in teragnosis.

        Another challenge is to address the global shortage of Molybdenum-99, which is essential for diagnostic imaging with Technetium-99m , the production of which has been seriously affected by the ageing of nuclear reactors. The IFMIF-DONES neutron and deuteron source opens up a valuable line of research to advance in teragnosis, with the development of new radiopharmaceuticals and production of Mo-99, to help mitigate the global deficit.

        This presentation is intended as an introduction to the challenges and opportunities in the field of nuclear medicine offered by a facility such as DONES.

        Speaker: Dr Laura Fernández Maza (Servicio Andaluz de Salud. H.U. Punta de Europa)
      • 43
        Conclusions of the session
        Speaker: Javier Praena (University of Granada)
    • Development of DONES users community
    • Coffee break
    • Development of DONES users community
      • 45
        Users community and access to research infrastructures – the example of EURO-LABS
        Speaker: Adam Maj (IFJ PAN)
      • 46
        IFMIF-DONES user’s support in Spain
        Speaker: Daniel Cano-Ott (CIEMAT)
      • 47
        Initial suggestion for the users’ form on the Request for Transnational Access on IFMIF-DONES Facility

        The IFMIF-DONEA facility in Granada is ESFRI single-site facility. For access to research infrastructures, ain in particular ESFRI facilities, the administration for requesting and granting time should be users’ friendly and kept to a minimum, in accordance with the principles stated in the European Commissions' document „European Charter for Access to Research Infrastructures“[1]. There are numerable research facilities that have calls for proposals for access to infrastructures; e. g. the leading European state-of-the-art electron microscopy research infrastructures through ESTEEM3 project [2], the high brilliance 3rd Generation Synchrotron Radiation Source at DESY (Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron) PETRA III DESY [3], European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) Grenoble [4], Elettra Sincrotrone Trieste [5], Central European Research Infrastructure Consortium (CERIC) [6], etc. Most of them have on-line forms with appropriate paragraphs (with limited number of characters) that users have to fill in to request access to the infrastructure. Therefore, we would like to propose a similar form for users that will be utilised for submission of proposals for Transnational access on International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility-DEMO Oriented NEutron Source (IFMIF-DONES) in Granada.
        The proposed initial form(s) are based on the Report on User Access Strategy for DONES [7] prepared in DONES PreP project, in which presently planned scientific exploitation fields are divided in three separate experimental programmes (EP), i.e.:
        - EP.1 High-priority fusion-related experiments;
        - EP.2 Experimental program focused on other type of fusion-related experiments; and
        - EP.3 Complementary Research experiments related to research fields out of fusion listed in [8].
        Different application forms are proposed depending on experimental program. The form(s) will be prepared for easy upgrade in the future when other experimental ideas will be developed. The high-priority fusion-related experiments (EP.1) at the IFMIF-DONES Granada Facility will be focused on experiments to irradiate the structural materials intended for use in future fusion reactors such as DEMO (Demonstration Fusion Power Plant). Therefore, an experimental program focused on other type of fusion-related experiments (EP.2) will be mainly developed in secondary positions with lower neutron fluxes but also inside the Test Cell of the DONES Facility for fusion-related applications or in dedicated room behind the Test Cell in case of (EP.3) Complementary Research experiments.
        For this reason, the desired position of the sample should first be selected in the on-line proposal (as the first question in the form) and further explained in the proposal.
        Other paragraphs in in-line form: (1) Title, (2) List of collaborators, (3) Scientific background and own previous work, (4) Samples preparation and preliminary characterization, (5) Explanation why samples should be situated in central (or requested) confinement (7) Expected results, and (8) References.
        Form for the neutron applications in (EP.3) Complementary Research experiments will start with the question “Which technique(s) do you plan to use?” with a list of available experimental techniques that users plan to use to perform the desired experiment(s). The present list in the proposed form will be based on the experiments mentioned by Hirtz et. al. [8] and Ibara et. al. [9], but will be extended already after the end of this workshop. Further, the on-line form will continue with main paragraphs: (1) Title, (2) List of collaborators, (3) Scientific background and own previous work, (4) Motivation for the present proposal and the scientific objectives of your project, (4) Explanation why this work requires access to a specific complementary experiment, (5) Experimental plan including a brief description of the samples and safety-related issues as well as a justification for the requested number of shifts, (6) Expected results and their impact (academic or industrial innovation), and (7) References.

        [1] European Commission, Directorate-General for Research and Innovation, European charter of access for research infrastructure: principles and guidelines for access and related services, Publications Office, 2016,
        [7] T. Tadić, DONES-PREP Deliverable 3.4-1 Report on User Access Strategy for DONES,
        [8] J. Hirtz, A. Letourneau, L. Thulliez, A. Ibarra, W. Krolas, A. Maj, Neutron availability in the Complementary Experiments Hall of the IFMIF-DONES facility, Fusion Engineering and Design 179 (2022) 113133.
        [9] A. Ibarra, F. Arbeiter, D. Bernardi, W. Krolas, M. Cappelli, U. Fischer, R. Heidinger, F. Martin-Fuertes, G. Micciché, A. Muñoz, F.S. Nitti, T. Pinna, A. Aiello, N. Bazin, N. Chauvin, S. Chel, G. Devanz, S. Gordeev, D. Regidor, F. Schwab and the full IFMIF-DONES team, The European approach to the fusion-like neutron source: the IFMIF-DONES project, Nucl. Fusion 59 (2019) 065002.

        Speaker: Dr Andreja Gajović (Ruđer Bošković Institute)
      • 48
        Current status of organisation of the IFMIF-DONES users community
        Speaker: Wojciech Królas (IFJ PAN Kraków)
      • 49
        Discussion on users community organisation and outlook
        Speaker: All